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Telangana: Dimensions of Underdevelopment ఫిబ్రవరి 27, 2007

Posted by Telangana Media in Reports on Telangana.

– S.Simhadri & P.L.Vishweshwer Rao

India is celebrating the ‘Swarna jayanthi’ of its independence even as it is passing through social upsurges in myriad forms, as responses to colonial and post-independent initiatives for economic development. The colonial model, pursued with centralisation as a transformatory process, has led to the breakdown of decentralised village economy and promoted the structures of extraction and domination. The prescribed accumulatory processes have manifested in societal and spatial dimensions that have heralded corridors and islands of prosperity by pushing vast territories into perpetual backwardness. Thus, the colonial process marked its uneven regional development on Indian territory.

Post-Independent India’s intelligentsia conveniently embraced the modernity by subjugating subaltern initiatives. the colonial model in the hands of emerging native classes accentuated the process of convergence in the spaces which were nurtured through colonial intervention. This has sown the seeds of socio-economic upsurge. the sharpening of tensions and the multiple contradictions has launched social movements across the nation. In fact, people have been agitating against one from of oppression or the other. “Internal colonisation”, one of the exploitative processes experienced after the “Decolonisation”, is causing resentment among the masses. Broadly, regional unrest is articulated on the line of nationalities and cultural and economic spaces. the cultural differences and regional imbalances in development are further accentuated by the alliances among the dominant classes. this has given rise to the people’s demand for separate statehood or territorial autonomy. The state often responds by unleashing repression against people who take up the cause of caste, class, gender, region and environment. Once again the voices are heard in the telugu landscape about the cultural invasion, resource misappropriation, state violence and regional backwardness. Therefore, the need to understand Telangana.

Andhra region as a constituent of Madras State has undergone the process of colonial development during 19th and first half of 20th centuries. On its part Telangana, while forming part of the then princely state of Hyderabad, has experienced feudal rule for a larger part of its modern history. In coastal Andhra, irrigation, railways and education have formed the colonial investment and facilitated the region to move into the capitalist development. With the early development of irrigation, delta Andhra received greater impetus in agriculture and resulted in agricultural surplus. This has gravitated the capital accumulation which in turn moved into new avenues of the emergent opportunities and therefore, the economic diversification in contrast to the stagnant economic process of Telangana. Infrastructure facilitated the delta people to acquire colonial education and spatial mobility as against the illiteracy and immobility of the people of Telangana.

The historical processes have thus led to the creation of two distinct regions with one as capitalist space and the other as feudal space. The early initiation of Andhra region into capitalist space accentuated the processes of commercialization of agriculture through the cultivation of sugar cane, tobacco, chillies and cotton. Telangana landscape, dominated by subsistence food grain cultivation with jowar, bajra, ragi, paddy, etc, suffered from the underdevelopment of its land and water resources. Commercial farming and agricultural surplus have facilitated the emergence of market and agro-industrial activity. The social and economic elite of the delta have also experienced nationalist, anti-Brahmin and linguistic movements. While the social elite from Coastal Andhra was mobilizing on linguistic regionalism against the Tamil domination in Madras Presidency, the Rayalaseema leadership resisted its merger with the developed Coastal Andhra on linguistic regional homogeneity. They feared the developed regional domination of Coastal Andhra and preferred to opt for independent statehood with the geographical contiguity of Rayalaseema with Nellore.

However, the Brahmin leadership of delta persisted with their demand for Andhra State and forced the Rayalaseema leadership to concede to be a part of Andhra region. Through the Sri Bagh Pact in 1937, the socio-political elite of Rayalaseema agreed on condition that irrigation and educational development of the region would be safeguarded. With myriad experiences under the colonial regime, the delta Andhra leadership set their eyes on the rich resources of Telangana and demanded the formation of Visalandhra. The parties with different ideological positions from Andhra put forth the demand for linguistic merger of Telangana and Andhra regions. The State Reorganisation Committee (SRC) (Appendix I) received the representation from the Andhra leadership on the utilisation of river water and other resources while making a case for the merger of two regions. On the other hand, the dominant caste leadership of Telangana initially vacillated on taking a position on the merger. However, they represented for the continuation of separate political existence of Telangana. Inspite of the SRC’s recommendation for retaining the Independent statehood for Telangana, the Telangana Congress leadership conceded to the central pressures and appended signature to Gentlemen’s Agreement (Appendix II) by ignoring the importance of river water and statutory safeguards to the regional backwardness.

The State of Andhra Pradesh (A.P) came into existence with the merger of feudal and capitalist spaces. The development model resorted to by the first linguistic state was on the lines of capitalist pattern which in fact came handy to the caste/class forces of Andhra region as they had accrued the benefits of the process as against the Telangana’s feudal landscape where all that was coming in the name of modern development, was totally new and alien to their living. The structures and logic of underdevelopment at the behest of the caste/class forces of developed Andhra region. A bird’s eye-view of Telangana in the context of regional disparities in Andhra Pradesh unfolds the macro/micro processes that are manifested in the name of integration and development. Massive influx of people is going on from Krishna, Godavari and Pennar deltas to the various corridors of Telangana. The abnormal growth of population during the sixties, in talukas of Mulug and Narsampet of Warangal district, Burgampad and Kothagudem of Khammam, Achampet and Godavari and Mahabubnagar, Nizamabad and Armoor of Nizamabad, Huzurnagar of Nalgonda, Utnoor and Luxettipet of Adilabad and east, west and urban talukas of Hyderabad, unravels the violent socio-spatial transformation. As the colonial model is pursued in post-independent

India in the name of modernisation, the Andhra people with colonial imprints could foresee the spaces of opportunities and this led them to move into new territories with multiple possibilities. They are concentrated in the areas coming under or one already under the irrigational commands, in commercially profitable black soil belts in deforested rich soil zones, in industrial centers and in rapidly growing urban centers. In the recent past, enterprising Kammas and Reddys of coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions extended their hold over real estate business by buying up vast lands at nominal land values, building, constructing and leasing. They have also set up huge orchards and have gone in for commercial crops which have brought them massive profits.

Andhra entrepreneurs and industrialists have flocked to Hyderabad and surrounding areas to avail themselves of the subsidies and infrastructure given to “develop” the back ward, drought-prone areas of southern Telangana. Caste/class/regional forces of the state are converging in the state’s capital and further strengthening their monopoly over the levers of power. The polarisation of these forces only facilitates the siphoning off of the resources and initiatives in the periphery which give rise to the dependence logic of core-periphery development. Although Hyderabad is located in Telangana, it does not reflect regional character but serves as an outpost of internal colonisation. Water is transported for building activity in the capital city rendering the subsurface hydrological regime dry along the large tracts of streams and rivulets in the hinterland of Hyderabad. Granite quarrying for urban needs is scuttling access to the precarious common property resources of the villages leaving the large segment of population on the margins of living. The development model with focus on capital-based agriculture and industry has helped the rich as they had access to the decision making, power and infrastructure. the cast/class/regional interests are transposed onto the entire apparatus of the state and their growth is legitimised through the network of institutions and medial and projecting it as panacea for underdevelopment. However, the traditional occupations of the vast majority of people do not form part of this “development” plan. No attention is paid in retaining common property resources.

Banjar lands and grazing lands vanish from the map of the village. Sheep and cattle rearing, the inherent occupations of semi-arid region of Telangana is not a priority for the planners. Similarly, many other equally important occupations like leather, laundry, barber, weaving, tailoring, pottery, fisheries etc., do not find space on the developmental map. Drought and desertification have thus been made inalienable to the human environment and ecosystem of Telangana by the post-independent development planning. The Andhra-dominated bureaucracy has no inclination to implement the available ecological and environmental alternatives in Telangana. Thus, accentuation of inequality along cast/class/ environment/regional lines has become an inbuilt stratagem of the ruling classes to keep the poor and the back ward perpetually outside the domain of power and resources. The ongoing transformation, guided and financed by the World Bank and multinationals in the Telugu landscape in the name of economic liberalisation, sends shivers down the spine. The welfare domains of education and health are being privatised and the poor are being kept on the fringes of basic needs. Privatisation of power sector threatens not only the agriculture-dependent Telangana, but also dictates terms to any democratically-elected government. The monopoly of resources, power and developmental activity by the caste/class forces of the developed coastal Andhra region which kept Telangana backward will not only continue but will become deeply entrenched in this era of privatisation. This process should be taken cognisance of by all democratic people’s articulations, otherwise it would be a catastrophe for the under-privileged every where.



1. Gurunath Prakash - అక్టోబర్ 13, 2008

What a Shame! The Authors are biased and tainted in their mind set. They need rehab. This is a clear case of identity crisis. There seems to be some element of personal ego problem. How unfortunate these are the guys who would be leading people. But, where would people be lead to? To nowhere, hate, cycles of abuse, violence, depression. They are bent on destroying the fabric of this Nation. They have divided people on Caste lines, regional lines, religional lines. Its sad. In this day of , Casteless Society. when the whole world is going forward, these guys are going backwards. Its sad, very sad. Is there no clause in Indian Law to excute these guys, who are cancerous and full of hate?

2. telangana pradesh - నవంబర్ 24, 2008

to the above genleman
where r u from?
come to our place (telangana) and try to solve the prob
not just writing some shit here
is thst fine to come to ur place , eat ur food, backstab u
this is waht happening in telangana…

3. Nawabzada Shajee Nawab - జనవరి 7, 2011

Ramayanam – Malayalam and English [DVD]
India is a land of rich culture and tradition and Indian mythology is an important part of this culture. Ramayan is the oldest and the most popular epic of the Hindus. Hindus believe that the Ramayan belongs to the Treta Yuga. The Ramayana has been a perennial source of spiritual, cultural and artistic inspiration, not only to the people of India but also to the people all over the world. It has helped to mold the Hindu character and has inspired millions of people with the deepest of love and devotion. Ramayan is a great medium for people especially parents to inculcate interest in Indian Culture in the younger generation and to impart values of Indian culture to them.

4. Nawabzada Shajee Nawab - జనవరి 7, 2011

People take great pride in being Hyderabadi. Though! It has come to mean has changed over time. The distinctness of Telugu-Urdu mixed language, culture, manners, cuisine, etc made the province a special place of peace and prosperity. No doubt the Hyderabadi’s are irrelevantly labeled as Nawabi cultured and Nawabi thoughts. Irrespective of cast and creed, it is because in the past, India had had no native state as rich, potent and extensive as Hyderabad, which was about the size of the United Kingdom and bigger than France. One will be rather astonished, the Nizam state was so rich that then Indian [Hindustani] currency was consequently as poor as Nizams 16-00 {Halee Rupyyah}was equaled to Hindustani Rupees 100/00
One of the living legends of the glorious past of Hyderabad is 95 years old Moughal Princes Begum Sahiba Laila Ummahani to whom I [ Nawabzada Shajee Nawab] have the honor of being her direct descendant and fourth son of the royal family; Her highness renowned and distinguished contribution to the Hindu-Muslim United culture of Telangana cause is unraveled.
The following information’s are from the part of her beautiful memories and forgotten lure of Hyderabadi culture, based on her remembrance. The purpose of this article is to give a few insinuation to the young Telanganites of their glorious past, because, it is observed that mindset of new generation is anomalous about Nizam of Hyderabad. There is a lot of bitterness driven primarily by ignorance regarding the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Telanganites and their past by The Andhrawala’s to spread the seeds of hatred among the communities. Though it is a very emotive issue, much like many Telanganites think. By most accounts, “His Exalted Highness” the Nizam of Hyderabad was a benevolent ruler who promoted education, science and development. He spent about one-tenth of his Principality’s budget on education, and even made primary education compulsory and free for the poor. In his 37-year rule, Hyderabad witnessed the introduction of electricity, railways, roads, irrigation projects and sweet water resources for his people, and many more important developments were carried out during his tenure. Among His contributions are; Universities – Apart from Osmania He also Helped Aligarh Muslim University and Banaras Hindu University. Many other Institutions Hospital for Poor (Osmania Hospital the first free Hospital for poor in the world by Osman Ali Pasha 7th Nizam) Reservoir: Husain Sager lake (now AP government has made it sewerage tank of the City) which was once supplied drinking water to Secundrabad. Himmayat Sager and Gandipet built in 1910 still used for drinking purpose. The High Court, Assembly of AP. Osmania Library is now turned as rubbish mangligio. Hundreds of other Buildings were used and destroyed by the present AP government which was the heritage of our culture. Railways and Roads Infrastructure were used for more than 50 Years before upgrading it

1. Nizams dominion and his various engagements are not familiar to the new generation, a number of brilliant Hindu’s from Madras, Mysore and Bengal were employed, acquired very important posts. One among them was Babu Madhusudhan Chaterjee. He was the MINT MASTER of Nizams mint, for Osmania sikka [Coins]. He was a highly competent authority and was very close advisor to the Nizam
The annexation of Hyderabad by military action in 1948 was swift and efficient bustle. Nizam’s troops led by General Aidroos, who in fact expressed his grave concerned, pounded no words in saying that how imprudent it was, to join hands with ill-equipped ‘Razakar’s, their batons, swords, and ancient guns that too were in no condition to put up any bit of resistance, and fight against the Massive Indian Army. One must understand the difficult history and the consequences the Telangana faced. The Muslim claims that there was a legitimate question of the choice left for Nizam had had, He was guaranteed through historic treatises with the Crown, and the Standstill Agreement signed with the newly formed Indian Union and Agreement signed by the Nizam, He was allowed to take time to think, and decide independently of what course of action to be taken. This included, to be remained an independent state or not accede to the Indian Union.
It is said, that Valla Bhai Patel was a visionary and indeed was an iron man of India. Nizam was mere the ruler of princely state of Hyderabad while Patel was part of the ruling clique of the country who had just attained independence. Both did their own calculations. Nizam tried to keep Hyderabad as an independent state while Patel’s job was to unify India. Patel tried his intelligence and played every trick, and then in Nehru’s absence launched Operation Polo, while Nizam strategically failed to garner material and men to support him in time of war. The ill equipped army with non regular’s Razakars [Volunteers] was never any match for the well trained and equipped Indian army; as a result Nizam lost the battle, mandatory surrendered to Indian army. Politically he lost on the chessboard of politics, and could not defend his nation, as it was his by right to fight, it is not an act of treason or swindle. And at the conclusion neither of them was wrong, one was not wrong for defending his kingdom and the other was not wrong with the intension and vision of unifying India. Patel was an agile mind, gigantic visionary, who left no stone unturned to unite India, which none of his contemporaries would have ever been able to achieve in such a mere little time, and was no comparison with his counterpart. Had it not been for Patel, we would not have seen a united India.
Hyderabad was a multi-cultural piece of land, consisting, Hindu institutions, Islamic institutions, Gurudwara sahib’s, magnificent temples, churches, Parsee temple [Ramnager Hyderabad] and magnificent Masjid’s
Eids, Sankrati [known as Til sankhrath] Holee, and Dasera, Moharam [Peerla Panduga], Shiv-ratri, Eid-e-nov rouz, Bonalu, Christ-mass, and Good Friday were the national festivals of Hyderabad. The Moharam and Bonalu were the main attraction of all the festivals. Processions with the bejeweled elephants were the core attraction for the Telanganites Hyderabad.
They Hindu Yadav’s community use to carry out bejeweled Bibi ka Alum which incur on 10th Moharam (Peerla Panduga) every year, and till date, no other community other than Yadav’s carries 12 Alums ahead of Bibi ka Alum’s Bejeweled elephant. It is also Hick hock story narrated by the old folks (elders) that before the dooms day, unintentionally, the Yadav community will not be performing their rituals of Bibi Ka alum.
Peerla Panduga [Bibi Ka Alum] is the existing witnessed of multi cultural ethics and ethnics of Telanganites. The Nazur and Nazrana to the Alum was presented at Dar us shifa by then Prime Minister of Nizam state Maharaja Krishnan Prasad, Jagirdars, Nawabs, Raja’s use to garland the Alum individually, the tradition is currently replaced by the MP or MLA. The Peerla Punduga is existed and organized in almost all the district of Telangana, is a reminder, importance of brotherhood, religious unionism of different religious and communities.
Like Bibi Ka Alum, same kinds of presentations were adorned at the Bonalu Panduga irrespective of caste and creed. The exquisitely decorated elephants and ghatams of Mahankali temples of Lal Darwaza, Uppuguda, Gowlipura, Alijah Kotla, Murad Mahal, Mir Alam Mandi, Sultan Shahi’s Jagadamba temple, Bela Muthyalamma temple’s and Akkanna Madanna temple of Hari Bowli, Kashi Vishvanath temple of Shah ali Bunda, Jagadamba temple of Sultanshahi, Mysamma temple’s of Shalibanda, Alijah Kotla and Gowlipura, and Sultanshahi, Darbar Mysamma of Aliabad and Mutyalamma temple of Chandulal Baradari, were carried out on bejeweled decorated elephants led by Prime minister Maharaja Krishan Prasad, Raja Bujrang Prasad, Raja Rae Rumba, Raja Kishwari lal, Raj Chandu Lal, were peaceful processions led by caparisoned elephant belonging to Akkanna Madanna temple of Hari Bowli, these elephants were granted munsub [Salary]by the nizam. Nizam also constructed the Chandrayan gutta Minder from his serfekas mubarak. [Nizams treasury]
Nizam also attributed 30 acre’s land for the Parsi fire temple at Parsigutta Ramnager. The Parsi temples of Secundrabad are the living example of Nizams broad religious-spectrum.
St. Joseph Church, St. Xavior, St. Peter churches of Secundrabad and Holy Merry church of gun foundry, Methodist church of Abids were constructed by the Christian community along with Nizams grants. The Narayanguda, Chikadapally trinity churches are also accommodated the grants of Nizam. Cavalry Barracks of Secundrabad is the sign of Christians dominated Nizams army.
By his privy purses, he constructed Ameerpet gurudwara saheb and contributed a large amount on the construction of Gowlipura Gurudwara Saheb and Gurudwara saheb of Afzal gunj, Nanded was the hub and most important place of Gurudwara saheb’s during the Nizam’s tenure. Nizam personally attended Grunth saheb ceremony at Nanded in 1934. The Yellow turban Sikh’s are the living leegendry and identity of Sikh regiment of Nizam State.
Hindu, Muslim Sikh, Christian, Parsee, Ka-yusth, were the buds of this lovely regime, that was a model and symbol of peace & friendship, religious tolerance and love and prosperity to all. The impartial Hyderabadi’s has never considered that it would get hatred in exchange from the Andhrite. The country and its rulers never made a fraction of difference between Muslims & non-Muslims.
The present day generation may not be familiar that Swami Vivekananda’s visited Nizam state [Hyderabad city] on February 10, 1893, and stayed in the Royal guest house as the first VIP. From the erstwhile pre-independent HINDUSTAN
On February 13th 1893 before leaving for Chicago, He addressed the Nizams parliament on common religious factors. More than 500 prominent dignitaries welcomed him at the Railway station, including powerful Nobles, Jagirdars and Nawab’s,and most powerful of all Nawab Sikandar Jung a prominent noble auspiciously garlanded him at the railway station. Swamiji addressed a public meeting at famous Mehaboob College secundrabad the next day. In his eloquent speech, he not only spoke on Hinduism but also contributed a large enthusiasm towards Islam, and Christianity giving an excellent exposition of their tenets. Maharaja Sir Krishan Prasad, the then Prime Minister of Nizam state, was so impressed by his lectures that he offered to meet all expenses of his to and fro travel. The offered was followed by a large number of Muslim Nawabs also. They offered financial assistance for his trip to USA but his esteemed Swamiji politely declined to accept it. Only saying {Very many thanks for the kind generosity] Swamiji greatly appreciated the generosity offered by the Hyderabadi Hindu’s and Muslims. He visited Mecca Masjid, Charminar, falaknuma palace, historic Golconda fort, Salarjung palace, the tomb of Baba Sharfuddin, [Pahadi shareef] Chandrayangutta Mandir, Mata ki Khidki temples, and also visited St.Jeoseph Church of Secundrabad. All sections of society gave him stimulating receptions at all these places; it was a unique event in the history of Nizam state. Swamiji’s addressed numerous public meetings. His marvelous and eloquent English and mastery grasp of the subject brought him consent praise from people of all religious personalities.
The well known photographer Raja Deen Dayal [Secundrabad] is the living legend for the entire Nizam regime‘s photographs and the royal families like Maharaja Krishan Prasad, Maharaja Mahboob Prasad, Raja Ray Venkatarama Reddy “Kotwal” Raja Rammu Prasad, there are more than ten thousand photograph of Raja, Maharaja’s, Jagirdars, and nawab’s of different caliber with his studio in Secundrabad. Among the most noted and competent is Nawab Ali Nawaz Jung Bahadur for his erudite services and his resources, constructions of irrigation projects, sweet water Dam’s like Nagarjuna sager, Nizam-sager, Ali-sager, Hussain-sager, Osman-sager, Himayath-sager, and so of Khan Badur Nawab Tipu Khan who saved the lives of scores of Dhobee’s[ cloth washer] that were washed away regularly while crossing the river, by constructing a bridge over Musi river at the sangum which is known as TIPU KHAN BRIDGE. [Here it would be healthier to mention that Khan Bahadur Nawab Tippu Khan is my great grand-father.]
Nizam’s army was consist of 1st Hyderabad Infantry , 2nd Sikh Infantry, Sikh regiment, 1st Lancers and 5th Infantry ,Chawoosh of Barkas, 03 Cavalry barracks of Christian and Hindu’s mix regiment, Deccan infantry of Maratha’s, regiment, Pathan and Pakhtoons, and mixed infantries. The previous one company of Kumaonis, the company of Jats/Sikh’s, the company of mixed community and the company of Ahirs were merged and were declared only his remained strength at the time of Police action.
The most important of all the gratitude’s to Nizam, due to his impartial attitude, after the fall of his governance, The He received the ceremonial post of Rajpramukh in 1950, but He resigned from this office when the states were re-organized in 1956 on linguistic basis and large parts of Hyderabad state went to Maharashtra [Bombay state] against the Fazle Ali commissions report and the merger of Andhra with Telangana
[The remaining story of Nizam unique way of collection will be released soon]Insha-Allah


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